Manmade: Regenerated: Lyocell



  • Lyocell is commonly used as a replacement for cotton or silk and is an arrangement of rayon that the main source is from cellulose derived received from wood
  • Originally Advanced by American Enka in 1972, lyocell burst became popular down the line in the 20th century and still today commonly used around the world.
  • This fibre is considered to be more acceptable used to make fabric because the source is made from organic ingredients, but if it’s good for the environment is still a question that remains.
  • Lyocell fabric became an abandon project and only made it through the pilot phase of development.
  • Later Based on the lyocell research left behind a British company called Courtaulds turned the research in a new fabric called it Tencel.
  • Because the development of these fibres are the same they are chemically identical but it can be used interchangeably.
  • People can sometime have a difficult time telling the defence between lyocell and cotton because they both fell similar witch is really soft
  • Textile manufacturers like the fact that it’s easy to mix this fabric with other types of textiles; for instance, it plays well with cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, nylon, and wool.


Preparing the wood pulp

  • You harvested the hardwood trees this is done by loggers and trucked to the mill.
  • Cut the trees up into 20 ft. (6.1m)
  • The bark is removed by high-pressure jets of water.
  • They are chopped into squares little bigger than postage stamps.
  •  They go into a chemical digesters that soften them into a wet pulp done by workers.
  • The pulps are washed with water and may be bleached.
  • Then, it is dried in a huge sheet and the workers roll it onto spools.

Dissolving the cellulose

  • The workers unroll multiple spools of cellulose and break them into one inch squares.
  • The workers then load these squares into a heated, pressurized vessel filled with amine oxide.


  • The cellulose dissolves into a clear solution after spending a short time in the solution
  • To know that all the chips are dissolved it gets pumped out through a filter.


  • Spinnerets are used with a variety of manmade fibres.
  • Its like a showerhead, there are lots of little holes and when the cellulose is forced through, long strands of fibre come out.
  • The fibres are then immersed in another solution of amine oxide, diluted this time to set the fibre strands.
  • Then are washed with de-mineralized water.

Drying and finishing

  • The lyocell fibre are left to dry.
  • Soap or silicone or other agent are applied to loosen the fibre to help with the carding and spinning be made easier

Final steps

  • Tow is a large untwisted bundle of continuous length filaments at the finishing stage.
  • The bundles of tow are taken to a machine to be compressed, giving it texture and bulk.
  • The fibres receives an action like combing, to separate out the strands.
  • They are cut and baled for shipment to a fabric mill.
  • All of this takes about 2 hours.
  • It can be processed by spun with another fibre, such as cotton or wool.
  • The yarn can be woven or knit like all fabrics and a variety of finishes can be created.
  • Read more:

Physical properties and Aesthetic properties

These come from cellulose which is good as a tree can grow back.

Differing properties e.g. lyocell being looked at as a replacement for cotton

Dye affinity is a good thing to look at for properties-Different flex of colour within your garments as different fibre have different dye affinity.

  • Hydrophilic fibres: these absorb moisture easily. This is a quality that allows the fibre to absorb perspiration from the body. They love water and absorb moisture quickly.
  • Elasticity: the ability of a fibre to stretch and recover to its original size and shape after stretching, an elastic fibre prevents bagginess in elbows and knees. Lyocell fabric can be manipulated to be stretchy without being blended with synthetic elastomeric fibres like spandex.

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